1250 to 1259
c - A supernova 650 light-years away should have been visible to observers on Earth according to scientists who analyzed evidence in 1998.
c - status Americas The Tsama Pueblo in New Mexico contained 1100 rooms and was occupied to the mid-1500s.
c - First surviving heraldic Rolls written.
c - The Anasazi in southwest Colorado fought a battle against unknown enemies. Number of kivas built greatly increased. Quality of workmanship in building decreased. People began to leave.
c - Late postclassic period of the Maya. u.1540
c - Military Technology Cuirass, chest plate, worn shortly followed by the use of a back plate as well (perhaps to counter the weight.)
x - Nicolo and Mafeo Polo embarked on their own cargo ship for Constantinople.
x - The Mamelukes, a military class initially composed of slaves, seized control of the Egyptian Sultanate.r.u.1517.
x - Italy lorence, Italy, became a major center for commerce and industry.
apr 30 - King Louis IX of France ? was ransomed for one million dollars. The Mamluk dynasty exacted 240 tons of silver for his release.
x - The Polo brothers, Nicolo and Mafeo, arrive at the province of Bokhara ruled by Prince Barak. They remained there for three years. u.c.1254
x - The Polo brothers resided for a year in the dominions of the Western Tartar chief Berca, who dwelt in the cities of Bolgara and Assara. A war soon developed between Berca and Alau, chief of the Eastern Tartars. This war was won by Alau and the brothers were forced to travel east in order to skirt unsafe roads.
x - A Franciscan friar journeyed to China to see the Great Khan.
x - Marco Polo was born in Venice.d.1324
apr - Louis departed the Holy Land
c - The Polo brothers met an ambassador of Alau on his way to see the supreme chief of the Tartars, Kublai. The ambassador offered to take the brothers to meet the grand khan and the Polo's accepted.
x - Hulagu, grandson of Genghis Khan, founds Mongol kingdom of Persia
x - France ? banned gambling with dice.
x - Thomas Aquinas * receives his license to teach. He becomes involved in the current questions of doctrine on two basic issues. He sides with the Nominalists as opposed to the Realists on the question of "universals". The second issue was based on Aristotle's notion of nature. Aquinas sees a distinction between spirit and nature but also a unity.
x - Kublia khan began his reign as the sixth grand khan, ruler of the Tartars.
x - Teutonic Knights bought large land complex, called Souf or Schuf, northeast of Sidon from Julian Grenier, lord of Sidon for 23,000 crusader besantsu.1261
x - Julian of Grenier, lord of Sidon, donated a fortress called Cave of Tyron to the Teutonic Knights + (about 12 miles east of Sidon) signifying the order's role in Holy Land was expanding
c - Further Transitions and Rebuilding of Political Islamu.c.1500
x - Teutonic Knights + buy a manor from John de la Tour, constable of Sidon, and two manors from John of Schuf and assumed the responsibility for defense north of Acre
x - Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol)
feb 10 - Huegu, a Mongol leader, seized Baghdad, bringing and end to the Abbasid caliphate and the Abbasid-Seljuk Empire.
oct 16 - Peace treaty among the Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights signed in Acre
Inline links found above :        [China ?+] [England ?+] [Egypt ?] [France ?] [Thomas Aquinas *] [Ireland ?+] [Teutonic Knights +] [Constantinople +] [Jerusalem +¢]
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