49 To 1 Bce
x - Julius Caesar extended Roman citizenship to the Cisalpines with the Lex Roscia
x - Ptolemy XII of Egypt exciles Cleopatra VII and assumes sole leadership of Egypt.
x - Pompey is defeated by Cesear.0802787908
x - Julius Caesar , having come to the aide of his mistress, Cleopatra kills Ptolemy XII and declares Cleopatra the queen of Egypt.
x - Cleopatra marries her eleven year old brother Ptolemy XIII before leaving for Rome with Julius Caesar . She gives birth to a son, Caesarian l.Ptolemy XIV.
x - Julius Caesar orders the development of the Julian calendar +
mar 15 - Julius Caesar is assasinated.
x - Ptolemy XIII is poisoned and Cleopatra makes her son, Caesarian her coregent.
x - Mark Anthony shares consulship with Caesar.
nov 07 - The Second Triumvirate is formed between Mark Anthony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (high priest), and Octavian.
jan 07 - Octavian forces the senate to award him the post of consul, and he changes his name to Gaius Julius Caesar.
oct 07 - The Second Triumvirate crushes the forces of Julius Caesar's assassins, Cassius and Brutus, in Philippi. u.0
x - Mark Anthony and Cleopatra fall in love.
x - Julius Caesar is recognized as a god and Octavian as the "son of god".
x - Egyptian queen Cleopatra journeys to Tarsus to explain her refusal to help the Second Triumvirate.
x - Cleopatra gives birth to twins.
x - Mark Anthony and Cleopatra return to Egypt.
x - Perusine War, between Octavian and Mark Anthony's brother Lucius Antonius, and Lucius's wife Fulvia.
x - Virgil aka Vergil, Publius Vergilius Maro becomes a resident of Rome.
x - Octavian marries Sextus Pompeius's relative Scribonia, an attempt to make peace with Sextus.
x - Herod the Great is appointed King of Judea by the Romans.
x - The Triumvirate meet and divide up the Roman Empire.
c - Military Technology Roman ships are designed with larger catapults and towers.
x - Virgil writes The Eclogue.
x - Octavian divorces Scribonia and marries Livia Drusilla, who has a four year old son Tiberius.
c - Military Technology Roman ships are strengthened with beams around the waterline. This is the first recorded use of belted armor.
x - Mark Antony is defeated in a fight with the Parthians.
x - Octavian's navy, led by admiral Agrippa, defeats the fleet of Sextus Pompeius.
x - Mark Antony is married to Cleopatra, and she gives birth to another child.
x - Mark Antony defeats the Parthians.
x - Octavian declares war on Cleopatra.
x - Mark Antony divorces his first wife, Octavia.0521497817
sep 00 - Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra the navel battle of Actium and becomes emperor of Roman world. He is given title Augustus. Mark Antony and Cleopatra flee back to Egypt.
x - Egypt is annexed, and put under the rule of Octavian's representatives.
x - Cleopatra commits suicide.
x - Octavian has Cleopatra's son Caesarion put to death.
x - Octavian attacks Alexandria, where Mark Anthony commits suicide.
x - The Senate gives Octavian the name Augustus, and the month Sextilis was rennamed August in his honor.
x - Herod the Great has his wife Mariamme executed.
x - Augustus claims to have 'transfered the State to the free disposal of the senate and the Assembly'.
x - Augustus ends the consulships and makes himself an 'imperium majus'.
x - Agrippa is dispatched to the east as Augustus' deputy, and married to the Emperor's daughter Julia.
x - Augustus is having health problems.
x - Marcellus, the husband of Augustus's daughter Julia, dies.
x - Philo Judaeus aka Philo of Alexandria is born.
x - Tiberius commands an expedition to Armenia.
x - Agrippa completes the conquest of Spain.
x - Roman poet Virgil aka Vergil, Publius Vergilius Maro dies.
x - Augustus passes the Julian laws, meant to try and encourage large families and increase the population.
x - Augustus officially adopts his gandsons Julia and Agrippa's children Gaius and Lucus as his sons.
x - High Priest Lepidus dies, and Emperor Augustus succeeds him as official high priest.
x - Tiberius and Nero Drusus annex Noricum and Raetia, and extend the borders of the Empire to Danube.
x - Propertius, poet, dies.
x - Ptolemy Philadelphus, youngest child of Mark Antony and Cleopatra of Egypt, dies.
x - Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa dies.
x - Tiberius and Nero Drusus go off to fight in the North.
x - At the request of Augustus, Tiberius divorces his wife and marries Tiberius's daughter, Julia.
x - Battle of the Lupia River, Roman forces under Drusus win a victory in Germany.
aug 01 - Claudius, Roman emperor, born.B00000JYWU
x - The Romans build a bridge across the Rhine near Bonn.
x - A Roman military camp is established at Speyer.
x - Marcus Verrius Flaccus, Roman grammarian, born.
x - Agrippa I, king of Judea, born.
x - Pannonia incorporated in the Roman Empire as part of Illyria.
x - Nero Drusus, intended hier of Augustus, dies of battle wounds.
x - Tiberius is fighting in Germany. u.6
x - Roman poet Horace dies.
x - Maecenas, Roman politician and patron, dies.
x - Herod the Great has his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, executed.
x - Tiberius moves to the island of Rhodes to study.
x - Judaea annexed by Rome.
x - Archelaus becames ethnarch of Judea.
x - Herod the Great dies.
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