549 To 500 Bce
x - Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Armenia.
x - Anaximander of Miletus dies.
c - Persians clash with the Lydians at the Battle of Pteria.
x - The tyrant Peisistratus seizes power at Athens.
x - Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus dies. b.636
c - Croesus of Lydia retires to Sardis but the Persians unexpectedly followup. Croesus hastily reassembles a even larger allied army and meets Cyrus on the Plain of Thymbra. The Lydian army is routed and the city falls after a short seige. Persia now rules Ionia.
x - Literature Xenophanes becomes a wandering poet and minstral.
c - Cyrus the Great now expands eastward. He reconquers most of Parthia, Sogdiana, Bactria and Arachosia which were attempting to establish their independence.
x - Pisistratus returns to Athens, and supported by Thebes and Argos is able to become tyrant of Athens again.
x - Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, allies with Egypt, defies Persia and builds a fleet of 100 ships.
x - Cyrus the Great defeats Bedouin sheikhs around Teima.
x - Heraclitus is born.
x - Temple of Diana on Janiculan hill in Rome.
x - 2nd period of Hebrew literature: Aramaisms, square script adopted. u.167
x - Cyrus the Great of Persia occupies Jerusalem and allows the Jews captive in Babylon to return there to rebuild their temple.
x - Carthaginians & Etruscans defeat Greeks at sea off Corsica.
x - According to tradition this is when Buddha saw the old man, sick man, and dying man that caused him to realize all life is suffering.
c - Cyrus the Great crosses the Hindu Kush and receives tribute from the Indian cities of the Indus valley and establishes the twentith satrapy of Gandhara.
x - Temple of Apollo built at Corinth.
x - Cyrus the Great dies in a campaign against the Massagatae of central Asia and his son Cambyses II becomes king. r.u.522
x - Pythagoras founds school in Greece.
c - Bible's 2nd Isaiah (40-55) written in Babylon by Deutero-Isaiah, proclaimed Cyrus Jewish Messiah because of decree to rebuild Temple
c - Cyrus the Great' tomb is erected at Pasargadae the capital city of Persia.
x - Mahavira Jina: Vardhamana b.c599, Indian philosopher, founds Jainism
x - Pisistratus of Athens dies, and his sons Hippias and Hipparchus take over.
x - Egyptian pharoah Ahmose II dies. His son Psamtik III becomes ruler.
x - Anaximenes of Miletus b.586, Greek philosopher.
x - Cambyses the II of Persia conquers Psamtik III of Egypt. u.404
x - Greeks stop the southward Etruscan migration at Cumae.
x - Persia Cambyses II of Persia dies. The Magian priests try to have one of their own made king.u.521
x - Darius I of Persia defeats the Magian priest upsurder.
x - The Persian Empire is extended beyond the Indus River. u.519
x - Persia Reign of Darius; Reorganizes the government into 20 satrapies; Builds an extensive system of roads giving a route to China and central Asia.u.485
c - Cambyses dies or is murdered, and is succeeded by his brother Smerdis. Smerdis is then overthrown and Darius I takes the throne.
c - Darius I commissions the completetion of the canal joining the Nile to the Red Sea began by Necho II in 610.
c - Darius I begins a campaign against the Scythians.
c - Darius I of Persia has the great rock-face of Behistan constructed, on the Ecbatana - Babylon Road, to give an account of his early successes. The cuneiform inscritions in 3 langauages lead Sir Henry Rawlinson to decipher cuneiform writing.
c - Darius I of Persia puts down a second revolt in Babylon.
c - Darius I of Persia sends Scylax, a Carian, on a voyage of discovery into the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.
c - Darius I of Persia visits Egypt, which he lists as a rebel country, and puts its satrap, Aryandes to death. He sets priests and wisemen the task of codification of Egyptian laws. The task takes 15 years.
x - Darius I of Persia's attack on the tribes on the Danube River fail.
x - Parmenides is born.
x - Jerusalem Construction of the second Temple is completed.
c - Darius I of Persia completes the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea began by the Egyptian King Necho II in 610 CE.
x - Carthage defeats Spartan Dorieus' attempt to colonize Libyan coast.
x - Hipparchus of Athens is killed, and his brother Hippias left to rule alone.
c - Darius I of Persia leads a campaign into southeast Europe, by building a bridge of boats across the Bosporus river.
x - Persian Emperor Darius conquers Thrace.
x - Greece The Peisistratus tyranny at Athens is overthrown.
x - Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
x - The seventh and last Etruscan king, Tarquinius Superbus was expelled from Rome after the rape of Lucretia by his son Sextus Tarquin, the Roman Republic is established.
x - Pythagoras, Greek mathematician, numbers are primary substance.
x - Rome sacked by Lars Porsenna of Clusium.
x - Greece The isle of Euboea conquered by Athenians.
c - Megabates with a Persian naval fleet of 200 tiremes attack Naxos with the support of the Ionians under Aristagoras.
x - Italy Parmenides, Greek philosopher, founded Eleaticism at Elea.
x - India Indian surgeon Susrata performs cataract operations.
x - Literature Dharmasastra smrti period of Indian Sanskrit literature: "Sutras". u.200
x - Classical Greek: Attic Greek of Athens becomes standard Greek. u.300
x - status World population c100 million.
c - Darius I completes/expands the Royal Road of Persians.
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