2999 To 2300 Bce
c - Syria Foundation of the city of Mari.
c - Mesopotamia The shekal is introduced as a monetary and weight unit.
c - First Egyptian hieroglyphs. Papyrus is used by the Egyptians.
c - Mesopotamia First known use of cuneiform script.
c - Sumer Eridu, earliest known city of Sumer, grows into a substantial city.
c - Sumer Devolopment of base 12 number system and metal coins.
c - Sumer Period of Sumerian city-states; Etana of Kish united Sumerian city-states Kish, Uruk, Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, Larsa after "Great Flood" u.c.2450
c - Tyre founded by Phoenicians.
c - Egypt King Zoser Djoser plans burial pyramind at Saqqara.
c - Mesopotamia Enmebaragesi & Agga rule Kish.
c - Egypt Zoser Djoser builds first pyramid, Step Pyramid at Saqqara, with the great help of the chief architect and priest Imhotep.
x - Year 1 of Chinese calendar.
c - Egypt The first 'unified' system of government to rule an entire country.
c - Egypt The Great Pyramid of Khufu Cheops is constructed at Giza.
c - Mesopotamia Mesalim rules Kish.
c - Egypt The Great Sphinx and second Great Pyramid of Giza is built by King Khafre Chephren.
c - Canaanite tribes settle in Palestine.
c - Phoenicians established along the Mediterranean's eastern shore.
c - Upper Nubia The Kerma Culture u.c.1500
c - SumerMilitary Technology Socketed axes where there is a tubular hole cast in the axe head through which the handle could be fit.
c - Egypt The first trace of domesticated cats
c - Classical Sumerian Cuneiform literature, largely records of Lagash
c - Lower Nubia C-Group Culture u.c.1500
c - Ebla flourishes u.c.2200.
c - Minoan civilization develops
c - SumerMilitary Technology Helmets of bronze, along with bronze spearheads and ax blades. Smiths begin making maces with ellipsoidal forms to concentrate force at the point of impact to counter the helmet and as the helmet became stronger, the mace head became sharper and the axe began to evolve. Because of the the difficulty in casting bronze and its limited strength, axe blades were broad and joined to a handle at three points with bindings or rivets.
c - Use of papyrus by Egyptians.
c - Crete Use of sealstones and the development of writing.
c - SumerMilitary Technology 4 wheeled chariots drawn by four donkeys and wild asses and which lacked a pivoting front axle
c - Mesopotamia Ur-Nanshe rules Lagash, Meskalamdug rules Ur, military conflictbetween Lagash & Umma.
c - India Engraved seals identify the writer.
c - Mesopotamia Lugalzagesi of Umma unifies Sumer briefly.
c - Sumer The Laws of Urukagina.
c - Jericho's wall falls.
c - Mesopotamia King Sargon of Akkad r.u.2315 conquers the fueding Sumerian city states and creates significant political and economic empire.
x - Sargon conquers Mesopotamia.
c - Mesopotamia Rimush the King of Akkad is assassinated.
c - Fall of the Old Kingdom in Egypt.
c - Mesopotamia Sargon's daughter High Preistess Enheduana is the first named author.
c - Egypt Weakening of pharaoh's central authority.
[5000-3000] [2999-2300] [2299-1700] [1699-1400] [1399-1100] [1099-800] [799-700] [699-600]